REFERENCES EXAMINING ASSAULTS BY WOMEN ON THEIR SPOUSES OR MALE
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Martin S. Fiebert
Last updated: February 2009
SUMMARY: This bibliography examines 247 scholarly investigations: 188 empirical studies and 59 reviews and/or analyses, which demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. The aggregate sample size in the reviewed studies exceeds 240,200.
Aizenman, M., & Kelley, G. (1988). The incidence of violence and acquaintance rape in dating relationships among college men and women. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 305-311. (A sample of actively dating college students <204 women and 140 men> responded to a survey examining courtship violence. Authors report that there were no significant differences between the sexes in self reported perpetration of physical abuse.)
Amendt, G. (2008). I didn't divorce my kids!: How fathers deal with family break-ups. Campus Verlag Publishers. (In Chapter 5 author presents data from an internet survey of 3600 divorced German fathers. Results reveal that 1/3 of men reported episodes of physical violence during the divorce process and 2/3 of these were initiated by ex-partners.)
Anderson, K. L. (2002). Perpetrator or victim? Relationships between intimate partner violence and well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 851-863. (Data consisted of 7,395 married and cohabiting heterosexual couples drawn from wave 1 of the National Survey of Families and Households <NSFH-1>. In terms of measures: subjects were asked "how many arguments during the past year resulted in 'you hitting, shoving or throwing things at a partner.' They were also asked how many arguments ended with their partner, 'hitting, shoving or throwing things at you.'" Author reports that, "victimization rates are slightly higher among men than women <9% vs 7%> and in cases that involve perpetration by only one partner, more women than men were identified as perpetrators <2% vs 1%>.")
Archer, J. (2000). Sex differences in aggression between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 651-680. (Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression indicate that women were more likely than men to use one or more acts of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently. In terms of injuries, women were somewhat more likely to be injured, and analyses reveal that 62% of those injured were women.)
Archer, J. (2002). Sex differences in physically aggressive acts between heterosexual partners: A meta-analytic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 213-351. (Analyzing responses to the Conflict Tactic Scale and using a data set somewhat different from the previous 2000 publication, the author reports that women are more likely than men to throw something at their partners, as well as slap, kick, bite, punch and hit with an object. Men were more likely than women to strangle, choke, or beat up their partners.)
Archer, J. (2006). Cross cultural differences in physical aggression between partners: A social-role analysis. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 10, 133-153. (A review article which suggests that "women's empowerment is associated with lower victimization rates from their partners." Greater individualism and empowerment by women, however, are also associated with higher perpetration rates.)
Archer, J., & Ray, N. (1989). Dating
violence in the
Arias, I., Samios, M., & O'Leary, K. D. (1987). Prevalence and correlates of physical aggression during courtship. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 82-90. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 270 undergraduates <95 men, 175 women> and found 30% of men and 49% of women reported using some form of aggression in their dating histories with a greater percentage of women engaging in severe physical aggression.)
Arriaga, X. B., & Foshee, V. A. (2004). Adolescent dating violence. Do adolescents follow in their friends' or their parents' footsteps? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 162-184. (A modified version of Conflict Tactics Scale was administered on two occasions, 6 months apart, to 526 adolescents, <280 girls, 246 boys> whose median age was 13. Results reveal that 28% of girls reported perpetrating violence with their partners <17% moderate, 11% severe> on occasion one, while 42% of girls reported perpetrating violence <25% moderate, 17% severe> on occasion two. For boys, 11% reported perpetrating violence <6% moderate, 5% severe> on occasion one, while 21% reported perpetrating violence <6% moderate, 15% severe> on occasion two. In terms of victimization, 33% of girls, and 38% of boys reported being victims of partner aggression on occasion one and 47% of girls and 49% of boys reported victimization on occasion two.
Basile, S. (2004). Comparison of abuse by same and opposite-gender litigants as cited in requests for abuse prevention orders. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 59-68. (Author examined court documents in Massachusetts for the year 1997 and found that, "male and female defendants, who were the subject of a complaint in domestic relations cases, while sometimes exhibiting different aggressive tendencies, measured almost equally abusive in terms of the overall level of psychological and physical aggression.)
Bernard, M. L., & Bernard, J. L. (1983). Violent intimacy: The family as a model for love relationships. Family Relations, 32, 283-286. (Surveyed 461 college students, 168 men, 293 women, with regard to dating violence. Found that 15% of the men admitted to physically abusing their partners, while 21% of women admitted to physically abusing their partners.)
Billingham, R. E., Bland, R., & Leary, A. (1999). Dating Violence at three time periods: 1976, 1992, 1996. Psychological Reports, 85, 574-578. (Data was collected from college students in 1986 <401 women, 202 men>, 1992 <210 women, 204 men> and 1996 <342 women, 229 men>. Subjects completed the CTS and results reveal a significant decrease in partner violence over a 10 year period. However, in terms of subjects' self reported violence and report of partner violence, women were consistently more aggressive than men.)
Billingham, R. E., & Sack, A. R. (1986). Courtship violence and the interactive status of the relationship. Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 315-325. (Using CTS with 526 university students <167 men, 359 women> found Similar rates of mutual violence but with women reporting higher rates of violence initiation when partner had not--9% vs 3%.)
Bland, R., & Orne, H. (1986). Family violence and psychiatric disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 129-137. (In interviews with 1,200 randomly selected Canadians <489 men, 711 women> found that women both engaged in and initiated violence at higher rates than their male partners.)
Bohannon, J. R., Dosser Jr., D. A., & Lindley, S. E. (1995). Using couple data to determine domestic violence rates: An attempt to replicate previous work. Violence and Victims, 10, 133-41. (Authors report that in a sample of 94 military couples 11% of wives and 7% of husbands were physically aggressive, as reported by the wives.)
Bookwala, J. (2002). The role of own and perceived partner attachment in relationship aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 84-100. (In a sample of 161 undergraduates, 34.3% of women <n=35> reported being victims of partner aggression compared to 55.9% <n=33> of men.)
Brinkerhoff, M., & Lupri, E. (1988).
Interspousal violence. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 13, 407-434. (Examined Interspousal violence in a
representative sample of 562 couples in
Brown, G. (2004). Gender as a factor in the response of the law-enforcement system to violence against partners. Sexuality and Culture, 8, (3-4), 3-139. (Summarizes partner violence data from the 1999 Canadian General Social Survey <GSS>. The GSS is based on a representative sample of 25,876 persons. Overall in the 12-month period preceding the survey, an estimated 3% Canadian women and 2% of Canadian men reported experiencing violence from their partners. During the 5 year period from 1995-1999, an estimated 8% of Canadian women and 7% of Canadian men reported violence from their partners. Reviewed police and legal responses to partner violence in Edmonton, Canada and concludes that ". . . men who are involved in disputes with their partners, whether as alleged victims or as alleged offenders or both, are disadvantaged and treated less favorably than women by the law-enforcement system at almost every step.")
Brush, L. D. (1990). Violent Acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: Methodological issues in the National Survey of Families and Households. Gender & Society, 4, 56-67. (Used the Conflict Tactics scale in a large national survey, n=5,474, and found that women engage in same amount of spousal violence as men.)
Brutz, J., & Ingoldsby, B. B. (1984). Conflict resolution in Quaker families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 21-26. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 288 Quakers <130 men, 158 women> and found a slightly higher rate of female to male violence <15.2%> than male to female violence <14.6%>.)
Burke, P. J., Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1988). Gender identity, self-esteem, and physical and sexual abuse in dating relationships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 272-285. (A sample of 505 college students <298 women, 207 men> completed the CTS. Authors reports that they found "no significant difference between men and women in reporting inflicting or sustaining physical abuse." Specifically, within a one year period they found that 14% of the men and 18% of the women reported inflicting physical abuse, while 10% of the men and 14% of the women reported sustaining physical abuse.)
Caetano, R., Schafter, J., Field, C., & Nelson, S. M. (2002).
Agreement on reports of intimate partner violence among
white, Black, and Hispanic couples in the
Callahan, M. R., Tolman, R. M., & Saunders, D. G. (2003). Adolescent dating violence victimization and psychological well-being. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18(6), 664-681. (Subjects were 190 high school students <53% male; 47% female; approximately 50% African-American> who completed a modified version of the CTS2. In terms of injuries, 22% of girls and 17% of boys reported being injured by their dating partners. Note this difference was nonsignificant.)
Capaldi, D. M. & Crosby, L. (1997). Observed and reported psychological and physical aggression in young, at-risk couples. Social Development, 6, 184-206. (A sample of 118 young men and their dating partners were surveyed regarding their own physical aggression as well as that of their partners. Findings reveal that 31% of men and 36% of women engaged "in an act of physical aggression against their current partner.")
Capaldi, D. M, Kim, H. K., & Shortt,
J. W. (2004). Women's involvement in aggression in
young adult romantic relationships. In M. Putallaz and K. L. Bierman
(Eds.). Aggression, Antisocial Behavior, and Violence Among Girls (pp. 223-241).
Capaldi, D. M., Kim, H. K., & Shortt, J. W. (2007). Observed initiation and reciprocity of physical aggression in young at-risk couples. Journal of Family Therapy, 22 (2) 101-111. (A longitudinal study using subjects from the Oregon Youth and Couples Study. <see above> Subjects were assessed 4 times across a 9 year period from late adolescence to mid-20's. Findings reseal that young women's rate of initiation of physical violence was "two times higher than men's during late adolescence and young adulthood." By mid-20's the rate of initiation was about equal. Mutual aggression increased the likelihood of injury for both men and women.)
Capaldi, D. M. & Owen, L. D. (2001). Physical aggression in a community sample of at-risk young couples: Gender comparisons for high frequency, injury, and fear. Journal of Family Psychology, 15 (3), 425-440. Drawn from a community based at-risk sample, 159 young couples were assessed with the Conflict Tactics scale and measures of self reported injuries. Findings indicated that 9.4% of men and 13.2% of women perpetrated frequent physical aggression toward their partners. Contrary to expectations, 13% of men and 9% of women, indicated that they were physically injured at least once. Authors report "2% of the men and none of the women indicate that they had been hurt by their partners between five and nine times."
Carlson, B. E. (1987). Dating violence: a research review and comparison with spouse abuse. Social Casework, 68, 16-23. (Reviews research on dating violence and finds that men and women are equally likely to aggress against their partners and that "the frequency of aggressive acts is inversely related to the likelihood of their causing physical injury.")
Carney, M., Buttell, F., & Dutton, D. (in press). Women who perpetrate intimate partner violence: A review of the literature with recommendations for treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior. (An excellent review of the literature on women who perpetrate violence in intimate relationships. Also summarizes intervention programs for such women.)
Carrado, M., George, M. J., Loxam, E., Jones, L., & Templar, D. (1996). Aggression in British heterosexual relationships: a descriptive analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 401-415. (In a representative sample of British men <n=894> and women <n=971> it was found, using a modified version of the CTS, that 18% of the men and 13% of the women reported being victims of physical violence at some point in their heterosexual relationships. With regard to current relationships, 11% of men and 5% of women reported being victims of partner aggression.)
Avery-Leaf, S., O'Leary, K. D., & Slep, A. M. S.
(1999). Factor Structure and convergent validity of the Conflict
Tactics Scale in high school students. Psychological Assessment, 11,
546-555. (A sample of 2320 high school students <1,180
males, 1,140 females> from seven high schools in
Cascardi, M., Langhinrichsen, J., & Vivian, D. (1992). Marital aggression: Impact, injury, and health correlates for husbands and wives. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152, 1178-1184. (Examined 93 couples seeking marital therapy. Found using the CTS and other information that 71% reported at least one incident of physical aggression in past year. While men and women were equally likely to perpetrate violence, women reported more severe injuries. Half of the wives and two thirds of the husbands reported no injuries as a result of all aggression, but wives sustained more injuries as a result of mild aggression.)
Caulfield, M. B., & Riggs, D. S. (1992). The assessment of dating aggression: Empirical evaluation of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 549-558. (Used CTS with a sample of 667 unmarried college students <268 men and 399 women> and found on a number of items significantly higher responses of physical violence on part of women. For example, 19% of women slapped their male partner while 7% of men slapped their partners, 13% of women kicked, bit, or hit their partners with a fist while only 3.1% of men engaged in this activity.)
Cercone, J. J.,
Beach, S. R. H., & Arias,
Chermack, St. T., Walton, M. A., Fuller, B. E., & Blow, F. C. (2001). Correlates of expressed and received violence across relationship types among men and women substance abusers. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 15, 140-151. (A sample of substance abusers <126 men, 126 women> ranging in age from 17-83 completed a modified version of the CTS. Results reveal no differences in expressed or received partner violence for men and women.)
Claxton-Oldfield, S. & Arsenault, J. (1999). The initiation of physically aggressive behaviour by female university students toward their male partners: Prevalence and the reasons offered for such behaviors. Unpublished manuscript. (In a sample of 168 actively dating female undergraduates at a Canadian university, 26% indicated that they initiated physical aggression toward their male partners. Most common reason for such behavior was because partner was not listening to them.)
Cogan, R., & Ballinger III, B. C. (2006). Alcohol problems and the differentiation of partner, stranger, and general violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 (7), 924-935. (A sample of 457 college men and 958 college women completed the CTS. Results revealed that significantly more men than women <35.4% vs 26.0%> reported being victimized by their partners.)
Coney, N. S., & Mackey, W. C. (1999). The feminization
of domestic violence in
Cook, P. W.
(1997). Abused men. The
hidden side of domestic violence.
Corry, C. E., Fiebert, M. S., & Pizzy, E. (2002). Controlling
domestic violence against men. Available: www.familytx.org/research/Control_DV_against_men.pdf
Earlier version presented at Sixth International
Conference on Family Violence,
Cui, M., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Melby, J. N., & Bryant, C. M. (2005). Observer, Self-, and partner reports of hostile behaviors in romantic relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1169-1181. (Examined a sample of 236 young people <48% married, 52% dating; 56% women, 44% men> who completed questionnaires regarding their hostility toward their partners. Findings reveal that couples living together have higher levels of hostility than dating couples and that women in both conditions demonstrate higher levels of hostility towards their partners than men.)
Cunradi, C. B., Caetano, R., Clark, C. L., & Schafer, J. (1999).
Alcohol-related problems and intimate partner violence among white, Black, and
Hispanic couples in the
Deal, J. E., & Wampler, K. S. (1986). Dating violence: The primacy of previous experience. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 457-471. (Of 410 university students <295 women, 115 men> responding to CTS and other instruments, it was revealed that 47% experienced some violence in dating relationships. The majority of experiences were reciprocal. When not reciprocal men were three times more likely than women to report being victims. Violent experiences in previous relationships was the best predictor of violence in current relationships.)
S. & Schwartz, M. D. (1998). Woman abuse on
campus. Results from the Canadian National
DeMaris, A. (1992). Male versus female initiation of
aggression: The case of courtship violence. In E. C. Viano
(Ed.), Intimate violence: interdisciplinary perspectives. (pp. 111-120).
Dowd, L. (2001). Female Perpetrators of Partner Aggression: Relevant Issue and Treatment. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 5 (2), 73-104. (A review article examining female partner aggression with a focus on treatment issues.)
Dutton, D. G. (2006). Rethinking
Dutton, D. G. (2007). Female intimate partner violence and developmental trajectories of abusive families. International Journal of Men's Health, 6, 54-71. (A review article which concludes that female violence towards intimate male partners is just as severe and has similar consequences as male violence towards women. However, most criminal justice interventions and custody evaluations assume that males are more likely to be IPV perpetrators.)
Dutton, D. G. & Nicholls, T. L. (2005). The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and theory: the conflict of theory and data. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 680-714. (A review and analysis of the data regarding male victimization. Critical of feminist approaches that minimize female perpetration and trivialize male injury.)
Dutton, D. G., Nicholls, T. L., & Spidel, A. (2005). Female perpetrators of intimate abuse. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 41, (4) 1-31. (A review article examining issues related to female abusers. Authors conclude, based on survey and epidemiological studies, that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships. They note that this is "especially so for younger cohort samples followed longitudinally.")
Dutton-Greene, L. B., & Straus, M. A. (2005, July).
The relationship between gender hostility and partner
violence and injury. Paper presented at the 9th International
Family Violence Research Conference,
K., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2004).
Clinically abusive relationships in an unselected birth cohort: men's and
women's participation and developmental antecedents. Journal of Abnormal
Psychology, 113 (2), 258-270. (Assessed 980
individuals, ages 24-26, who were participants in longitudinal study in
Ellison, C. G., Barkowski, J. P., & Anderson, K. R. (1999). Are there religious variations in domestic violence? Journal of Family Issues, 20, 87-113. (Subjects were selected from the first wave of The National Survey of Families & Households and consisted of 2,420 women and 2,242 men. Self administered surveys revealed that females were significantly more likely than males to perpetrate violence toward their partners. Authors report that "regular attendance at religious services is inversely associated" with domestic violence for men and women.)
Ernst, A. A.,
Nick, T. G., Weiss, S. J., Houry, D., & Mills, T.
(1997). Domestic violence in an inner-city ED.
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 30, 190-197. (Assessed
516 patients <233 men, 283 women> in a
Farrell, W. (1999). Women can't hear what men don't
Feather, N. T. (1996). Domestic
violence, gender and perceptions of justice. Sex Roles, 35,
507-519. (Subjects <109 men, 111 women> from
Felson, R. B. (2002). Violence and Gender
Felson, R. B. (2006). Is violence against women about women or about violence? Contexts, 5, 21-25. (Reports that while men are eight times more likely to commit overall violence than women, there is gender parity in partner violence. Author suggests that violent men are "less likely to assault their partners because of the chivalry norm.")
Felson, R. B. (in press). The legal consequences of intimate partner violence for men and women. Children and Youth Services Review. (Author reports that evidence suggests that violent husbands are not treated more leniently than other violent offenders. Evidence also suggests that male victims of partner violence are dissatisfied with their treatment by the legal system. In the article author summarizes an unpublished study examining whether gender and marital status affect whether people think the police should be notified about a partner assault. In a telephone survey, 800 subjects responded to a scenario of an argument between a couple in which one strikes the other, bruising their arm. Results indicate that subjects were more likely <80% to 60%> to condemn men's assaults on women than women's assaults on men, even though injuries were identical.)
Felson, R. B., & Outlaw, M. (2007). The control motive and marital violence. Violence and Victims, 22, 387-407. (Study based on an analysis of data obtained through the National Violence Against Women Survey <see Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000>. Authors looked at 10,000 respondents out of 16,000 total sample who were currently married. Results reveal that adult women are just as controlling and jealous toward their male partners as the other way around. Also report that, "While controlling spouses in current marriages are more likely to act violently there is no evidence that this relationship is gendered.")
Felton, R. B., & Pare, P. (2005). The reporting of domestic violence and sexual assault by nonstrangers to the police. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 597-610. (Authors analyzed data from The National Violence Against Women Survey, and found that "male victims are particularly reluctant to report assaults by their female partners." Reasons for nonreporting include: fear of reprisal, thought that police could do nothing to help and charges would not be believed.)
Felton, R. B., & Pare, P. (2007). Does the criminal justice system treat domestic violence and sexual offenders leniently? Justice Quarterly, 24, 435-459. (Authors analyzed data from the National Violence Against Women Survey and conclude that "women who assault their male partners are particularly likely to avoid arrest.")
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Partner violence
and mental health outcomes in a
Fiebert, M. S., & Gonzalez,
D. M. (1997). Women who
initiate assaults: The reasons offered for such behavior. Psychological
Reports, 80, 583-590. (A sample of 968 women, drawn
primarily from college courses in the
Fiebert, M. S. (1996). College students' perception of men as victims of women's assaultive behavior. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 82, 49-50. (Three hundred seventy one college students <91 men, 280 women> were surveyed regarding their knowledge and acceptance of the research finding regarding female assaultive behavior. The majority of subjects (63%) were unaware of the finding that women assault men as frequently as men assault women; a slightly higher percentage of women than men (39% vs 32%) indicated an awareness of this finding. With regard to accepting the validity of these findings a majority of subjects (65%) endorsed such a result with a slightly higher percentage of men (70% vs 64%)indicating their acceptance of this finding.)
Flynn, C. P. (1990). Relationship violence by women: issues and implications. Family Relations, 36, 295-299. (A review/analysis article that states, "researchers consistently have found that men and women in relationships, both marital and premarital engage in comparable amounts of violence." Author also writes, "Violence by women in intimate relationships has received little attention from policy makers, the public, and until recently, researchers...battered men and abusive women have receive 'selective inattention' by both the media and researchers.")
Follingstad, D. R., Wright, S., & Sebastian, J. A. (1991). Sex differences in motivations and effects in dating violence. Family Relations, 40, 51-57. (A sample of 495 college students <207 men, 288 women> completed the CTS and other instruments including a "justification of relationship violence measure." The study found that women were twice as likely to report perpetrating dating violence as men. Female victims attributed male violence to a desire to gain control over them or to retaliate for being hit first, while men believed that female aggression was a based on their female partner's wish to "show how angry they were and to retaliate for feeling emotionally hurt or mistreated.")
Foo, L., & Margolin, G. (1995). A multivariate investigation of dating aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 351-377. (A sample of 290 college students <111 men, 179 women> responded to the CTS. Results reveal that 24.3% of men and 38.5% of women reported perpetrating physical violence toward their dating partners.)
Foshee, V. A. (1996). Gender differences in
adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries. Health Education
Research, 11 (3), 275-286. (Data collected from 1965 adolescents in eighth and
ninth grade in 14 schools in rural
Gelles, R. J. (1994). Research and advocacy: Can one wear two hats? Family Process, 33, 93-95. (Laments the absence of objectivity on the part of "feminist" critics of research demonstrating female perpetrated domestic violence.)
George, M. J. (1994). Riding the donkey backwards: Men as the unacceptable victims of marital violence. Journal of Men's Studies, 3, 137-159. (A thorough review of the literature which examines findings and issues related to men as equal victims of partner abuse.)
George, M. J.
(1999). A victimization survey of female perpetrated assaults
George, M. J. (2002). Skimmington Revisited. Journal of Men's Studies, 10 (2), 111-127. (Examines historical sources and finds that men who were victims of spousal aggression were subject to punishment and humiliation. Inferences to contemporary trivialization of male victims of partner aggression is discussed.)
George, M. J. (2003). Invisible touch. Aggression & Violent Behaviour, 8, 23-60. (A comprehensive review and analysis of female initiated partner aggression. Historical, empirical and case evidence presented to demonstrate reality of "battered husband syndrome.")
George, M. J. (2007). The "great taboo" and the role of patriarchy in husband and wife abuse. International Journal of Men's Health, 6, 7-22. (A scholarly examination of key myths and taboos surrounding the concept of patriarchy. Emphasizes the point that IPV will be successfully combated only when male victimization is acknowledged and addressed by both men and women.)
Giordano, P. C., Millhollin, T. J., Cernkovich, S. A., Pugh, M. D., & Rudolph, J. L. (1999). Delinquency, identity, and women's involvement in relationship violence. Criminology, 37, 17-40. (Reports the responses of 721 young adults <45% male, 55% female; 47% white, 53% nonwhite> who had been involved in delinquent activities 10 years earlier. Subjects responded to a modified version of the CTS. Findings reveal that women were more likely to perpetrate violence than men. Specifically, 27.6% of women compared to 19.2% of men hit or threw at their partner and 8.3% of women compared to 0.4% of men threatened spouse or partner with a knife.)
Goldberg, W. G., & Tomlanovich, M. C.
(1984). Domestic violence victims in the
emergency department. JAMA, 251, 3259-3264. (A sample of 492
patients <275 women, 217 men> who sought treatment in an emergency
department in a
Gonzalez, D. M. (1997). Why females initiate violence:
A study examining the reasons behind assaults on men. Unpublished
Goodyear-Smith, F. A. & Laidlaw, T. M. (1999). Aggressive acts and assaults in intimate relationships: Towards an understanding of the literature. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 17, 285-304. (An up to date scholarly analysis of couple violence. Authors report that, ...studies clearly demonstrate that within the general population, women initiate and use violent behaviors against their partners at least as often as men.
Graham, K., Plant, M., & Plant, M. (2004). Alcohol, gender and partner aggression: a general population study of British adults. Addiction Research and Theory, 12, 385-401. (A cross sectional sample of 2027 <1052 women, 975 men> adults were interviewed regarding their experience with partner aggression. Results indicate that 16% of women reported physically aggressing their male partners within a two year period, while 13% of males reported physically aggressing their female partners.)
Graham-Kevan, N. (2007). Domestic violence: Research and
implications for batterer programmes in
Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (July, 2005). Using Johnson's domestic violence typology to classify men and
women in a non-selected sample. Paper presented at the 9th Annual
Family Violence Research Conference,
& Lupri, E. (1997). Intimate
Gray, H. M. & Foshee, V. (1997). Adolescent dating violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 126-142. (A sample of 185 adolescents responded to a questionnaire about dating violence; 77 students reported being involved in physical violence in their current or most recent dating relationship. Mutual violence was present in 66% of cases; while 26% of males and 8% of females reported being victims of violence and 29% of females and 4% of males reported being sole perpetrators of violence.)
Gryl, F. E., Stith, S. M., & Bird, G. W. (1991). Close dating relationships among college students: differences by use of violence and by gender. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 243-264. (A sample of 280 first year college students <156 women, 124 men> at a mid-Atlantic university completed the violence sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Results reveal that almost 30% of the females and 23% of males reported that they had been violent in the current relationship. Also almost 28% of women and 39% of men reported sustaining violence in their current relationship.)
(2005). Gender Inclusive Treatment of Intimate Partner Abuse.
Hamel, J. (2007). Toward a gender-inclusive conception of intimate partner violence research and theory: Part 1-traditional perspectives. International Journal of Men's Health, 6, 36-54. (A review article which examines research in the area of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and finds that until recently the primary focus was on the physical and psychological abuse of women by their male partners. Concludes that the reluctance to objectively investigate the area is due to a "prevailing patriarchal conception of intimate partner violence.")
Hampton, R. L., Gelles, R. J., & Harrop, J. W. (1989). Is violence in families increasing? A comparison of 1975 and 1985 National Survey rates. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 969-980. (Compared a sample of 147 African Americans from the 1975 National Survey with 576 African Americans from the 1985 National Survey with regard to spousal violence. Using the CTS found that the rate of overall violence (169/1000) of husbands to wives remained the same from 1975 to 1985, while the rate of overall violence for wives to husbands increased 33% (153 to 204/1000) from 1975 to 1985. The rate of severe violence of husbands to wives decreased 43% (113 to 64/1000) from 1975 to 1985, while the rate of severe violence of wives to husbands increased 42% (76 to 108/1000) from 1975 to 1985. In 1985 the rate of abusive violence by black women was nearly 3 times greater than the rate of white women.)
Harned, M. S. (2002). A multivariate analysis of risk markers for dating violence victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 1179-1197. (In a university sample of 874 daters <489 women, 385 men> assessed with the revised CTS, 22% of women and 21% of men reported experiencing physical aggression from dating partners.)
Harders, R. J., Struckman-Johnson, C., Struckman-Johnson,
D. & Caraway, S. J. (1998). Verbal and
physical abuse in dating relationships. Paper presented at the
meeting of American Psychological Association,
Scott, D., & de Vaus, D. (1999). Domestic
Hendy, H. M., Weiner, K., Bakerofskie, J., Eggen, D., Gustitus, C., & McLeod, K. C. (2003). Comparison of six models for violent romantic relationships in college men and women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 645-665. (A sample of 608 students <164 men, 444 women> were surveyed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Results indicate that 16% of men and 26% of women report inflicting violence on their current romantic partner.)
Henton, J., Cate, R., Koval, J., Lloyd, S., & Christopher, S. (1983). Romance and violence in dating relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 4, 467-482. (Surveyed 644 high school students <351 men, 293 women> and found that abuse occurred at a rate of 121 per 1000 and appeared to be reciprocal with both partners initiating violence at similar rates.)
I., Kosterman, R., Mason, W. A., & Hawkins, J. D.
(2007). Victims and Violence, 22 (3), 259-274. (Subjects
were drawn from a longitudinal study in
Hines, D. A. & Malley-Morrison, K. (2001). Psychological effects of partner abuse against men: a neglected research area. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 2, 75-85. (A review article that examines the issue of men as victims of partner abuse. Considers reasons why men would remain in an abusive relationship.)
Hines, D. A. & Saudino, K. J. (2003). Gender differences in psychological, physical, and sexual aggression among college students using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Violence and Victims, 18 (2), 197-217. (A sample of 481 college students <179 men, 302 women> responded to the revised Conflict Tactics scale. Results indicate that 29% of men and 35% of women reported perpetrating physical aggression in their relationships.)
Hird, M. J. (2000). An empirical
study of adolescent dating aggression in the
Hoff, B. H. (1999). The risk of serious physical injury from assault by a woman intimate. A re-examination of National Violence against women survey data on type of assault by an intimate. www.vix.com/menmag/nvawrisk.htm. (A re-examination of the data from the most recent National violence against women survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998) shows that "assaulted men are more likely than assaulted women to experience serious attacks by being hit with an object, beat up, threatened with a knife or being knifed.")
Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (2005). Female Perpetration of Physical Aggression Against an Intimate Partner: A Controversial New Topic of Study. Violence and Victims, 20 (2), 251-259. (Examines the changing zeitgeist, methodological issues, and research findings regarding female perpetrated violence.)
Jackson, S. M., Cram, F. & Seymour, F. W. (2000). Violence and sexual coercion in high school students' dating relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 15, 23-36. (In a New Zealand sample of senior high school students <200 women, 173 men> 21% of women and 19% of men reported having been physically hurt by their heterosexual dating partner.)
Jenkins, S. S., & Aube, J. (2002). Gender differences and gender-related constructs in dating aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1106-1118. (Used the CTS with a university sample of 85 dating couples. Authors report that, "women in existing college dating relationships are more aggressive than men.")
Jezl, D. R., Molidor, C. E., & Wright, T. L. (1996). Physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in high school dating relationships: Prevalence rates and self-esteem issues. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 13 (1), 69-87. (Examined an ethnically diverse sample of currently dating subjects <114 male, 118 female> who responded to a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Results indicate that 50.9% of subjects <63% of males and 39% of females> reported being victims of moderately abusive behaviors such as "being kicked, slapped, having your hair pulled, and being intentionally scratched.")
Jouriles, E. N., & O'leary, K. D. (1985). Interpersonal reliability of reports of marital violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 419-421. (Used the Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 65 couples in marriage therapy and 37 couples from the community. Found moderate levels of agreement of abuse between partners and similar rates of reported violence between partners.)
Kalmuss, D. (1984). The intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 11-19. (In a representative sample of 2,143 adults found that the rate of husband to wife severe aggression is 3.8% while the rate of wife to husband severe aggression is 4.6%.)
Katz, J., Carino, A., & Hilton, A. (2002). Perceived verbal conflict behaviors associated with physical aggression and sexual coercion in dating relationships: a gender-sensitive analysis. Violence & Victims, 17, 93-109. (A sample of 223 <115 males, 108 females> heterosexual dating undergraduates completed the CTS2. Results indicate that there were no differences for men and women in the perpetration of physical aggression toward partners.)
Katz, J., Kuffel, S. W., & Coblentz, A. (2002). Are there gender differences in sustaining dating violence? An examination of frequency, severity, and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Family Violence, 17, 247-271. (Authors report two studies where dating men and women experienced violence at comparable levels, "although men experienced more frequent moderate violence." In the first study n=286, <183 women, 103 men> 55% of women had nonviolent partners, while 50% of men had nonviolent partners; in the second study n=123 <78 women, 45 men> 73% of women had nonviolent partners, while 58% of men had nonviolent partners.)
Kaura, S. A. & Allan, C. M. (2004). Dissatisfaction with relationship power and dating violence perpetration by men and women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 576-588. (A university sample of 352 men and 296 women completed the revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Authors report, "Surprisingly, significantly more dating violence perpetration is reported by women than by men." Also found that "male perpetration of dating violence is related to mother's violence, whereas female perpetration of dating violence is related to father's violence.")
(2003). Disabusing the definition of domestic abuse:
how women batter men and the role of the feminist state.
Kessler, R. C., Molnar, B. E., Feurer, I. D., & Appelbaum,
M. (2001). Patterns and mental health predictors of domestic violence in the
Kim, K., & Cho, Y. (1992). Epidemiological survey of spousal abuse in
Kim, J-Y., & Emery, C. (2003). Marital power, conflict, norm consensus, and marital violence in a nationally representative sample of Korean couples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 197-219. (A sample of 1500 South Koreans were surveyed. Marital power, conflict and norm consensus were correlated with marital violence. Findings reveal that the incidence of husband to wife violence 27.8%, while wife to husband was 15.8%)
& Fiebert, M. (2008, April).
Interracial dating and partner abuse: A pilot study. Poster session
presented at the annual meeting of Western Psychological Association,
Kwong, M. J.,
Bartholomew, K., & Dutton, D. (1999). Gender
differences in patterns of relationship violence in
Lane, K., & Gwartney-Gibbs, P.A. (1985). Violence in the context of dating and sex. Journal of Family Issues, 6, 45-49. (Surveyed 325 students <165 men, 160 women> regarding courtship violence. Used Conflict Tactics Scale and found equal rates of violence for men and women.)
Laner, M. R., & Thompson, J. (1982). Abuse and aggression in courting couples. Deviant Behavior, 3, 229-244. (Used Conflict Tactics Scales with a sample of 371 single individuals <129 men, 242 women> and found similar rates of male and female violence in dating relationships.)
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2005). Top 10 greatest hits. Important findings and future directions for intimate partner violence research. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 108-118. (Author spells out her choices of the 10 most important recent findings in the field of intimate partner violence. Specifically states, "data indicate that women's perpetuation of violence is surprisingly frequent, perhaps more so than men's. . . .")
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., & Vivian, D. (1994). The correlates of spouses' incongruent reports of marital aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 265-283. (In a clinic sample of 97 couples seeking marital therapy, authors found, using a modified version of the CTS, that 61% of the husbands and 64% of the wives were classified as aggressive, 25% of the husbands and 11% of the wives were identified as mildly aggressive and 36% of husbands and 53% of wives were classified as severely aggressive. Sixty-eight percent of couples were in agreement with regard to husband's overall level of aggression and 69% of couples were in agreement on wive's overall level of aggression. Aggression levels were identified as "nonviolent, mildly violent, or severely violent." Where there was disagreement, 65% of husbands <n=20> were under-reporting aggression and 35% of husbands <n=11> were over-reporting aggression; while 57% of wives <n=17> were under-reporting aggression and 43% of wives <n=13> were over-reporting aggression.)
Laroche, D. (2005). Aspects of the
context and consequences of domestic violence-Situational couple violence and
intimate terrorism in
Leisring, P. A.,
Dowd, L., & Rosenbaum, A. (2003). Treatment
of Partner Aggressive Women. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment
and Trauma, 7 (1/2), 257-277. (Article discusses information regarding
gender parity in partner aggression. Authors provide a rationale for the
study of female offenders and describe characteristics of partner aggressive
women. Included is a presentation of the treatment program for partner
aggressive women at
LeJeune, C., & Follette, V. (1994). Taking Responsibility. Sex Differences in reporting dating violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 133-140. (A sample of 465 college students <58.3% male, 41.7% female> responded to a mailed survey of CTS items. Results reveal that 42.4% of female respondents report that they "usually initiate violent acts in their relationship" compared to 14.3% of male respondents who report "that they usually initiate violence." Females also report that 39.4% of their male partners initiate violence while 52.4% of males report that violence is initiated by their female partners. Authors speculate that this discrepancy suggests that "females are more likely than males to accept responsibility for initiating violence.")
& Sarantakos, S. (2001). Domestic Violence and the male victim. Nuance, #3. (Based on interviews with 48 men in
Lewis, S. F., & Fremouw, W. (2001). Dating violence: A critical review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review, 21, 105-127. (Authors examine the literature and state that, "there is ample evidence that females initiate more violence than males." Discusses explanations for these findings as well as "deficits in the present body of literature including sampling methods, dependent measures and data analyses.")
Lillja, C. M.
(1995). Why women abuse: A study examining the function of abused
men. Unpublished master's thesis,
Lo, W. A., & Sporakowski, M. J. (1989). The continuation of violent dating relationships among college students. Journal of College Student Development, 30, 432-439. (A sample of 422 college students completed the Conflict Tactics Scale. Found that, "women were more likely than men to claim themselves as abusers and were less likely to claim themselves as victims.")
Macchietto, J. (1992). Aspects of male victimization and female aggression: Implications for counseling men. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 14, 375-392. (Article reviews literature on male victimization and female aggression.)
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Fagan, J., Newman, D. L.,
& Silva, P. A. (1997). Gender differences in partner violence
in a birth cohort of 21 year Olds: bridging the gap between clinical and
epidemiological approaches. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 65, 68-78. (Used CTS with a sample of 861
21 year Olds <436 men, 425 women> in
Makepeace, J. M. (1986). Gender differences in courtship violence victimization. Family Relations, 35, 383-388. (A sample of 2,338 students <1,059 men, 1,279 women> from seven colleges were surveyed regarding their experience of dating violence. Courtship violence was experienced by 16.7 % of respondents. Authors report that "rates of commission of acts and initiation of violence were similar across gender." In term of injury, both men (98%) and women (92%) reported "none or mild" effects of violence.)
Malik, S., Sorenson, S. B., & Aneshensel, C. S. (1997). Community and dating violence among adolescents: perpetration and victimization. Journal of Adolescent Health, 21, 291-302. (A sample of 707 high school students <281 boys, 426 girls> responded to the CTS. Results reveal that girls were almost 3 times more likely than boys to perpetrate dating violence. In terms of ethnicity, African-Americans had the highest level of dating violence, followed by Latinos, whites, and Asian Americans.)
Mallory, K. A., McCloskey, K. A., Griggsby, N., & Gardner, D. (2003). Women's use of violence within intimate relationships. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 6 (2), 37-59. (Reviews research which examines women's use of violence in intimate relationships. Reports a number of studies which document the increased arrests of women in domestic disputes.)
Malone, J., Tyree, A., & O'Leary, K. D. (1989). Generalization and containment: Different effects of past aggression for wives and husbands. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 687-697. (In a sample of 328 couples it was found that men and women engaged in similar amounts of physical aggression within their families of origin and against their spouses. However, results indicate that women were more aggressive to their partners than men. Aggression was more predictable for women, i.e., if women observed parental aggression or hit siblings they were more likely to be violent with their spouses.)
Margolin, G. (1987). The multiple forms of aggressiveness between marital partners: how do we identify them? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 13 , 77-84. (A paid volunteer sample of 103 couples completed the Conflict Tactics Scale. It was found that husbands and wives perpetrated similar amounts of violence. Specifically, the incidence of violence, as reported by either spouse was: husband to wife =39; wife to husband =41.)
Marshall, L. L., & Rose, P. (1987). Gender, stress and violence in the adult relationships of a sample of college students. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 299-316. (A survey of 308 undergraduates <152 men, 156 women> revealed that 52% expressed and 62% received violence at some point in their adult relationships. Overall, women report expressing more physical violence than men. Childhood abuse emerged as a predictor of violence in adult relationships.)
Marshall, L. L., & Rose, P. (1990). Premarital violence: The impact of family of origin violence, stress and reciprocity. Violence and Victims, 5, 51-64. (454 premarital undergraduates <249 women, 205 men> completed the CTS and other scales. Overall, women reported expressing more violence than men, while men reported receiving more violence than women. Female violence was also associated with having been abused as children.)
Mason, A., & Blankenship, V. (1987). Power and affiliation motivation, stress and abuse in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 203-210. (Investigated 155 college students <48 men, 107 women> with the Thematic Apperception Test <TAT>, Life Experiences Survey and the CTS. Found that there were no significant gender differences in terms of the infliction of physical abuse. Men with high power needs were more likely to be physically abusive while highly stressed women with high needs for affiliation and low activity inhibition were the most likely to be physically abusive. Results indicate that physical abuse occurred most often among committed couples.)
Matthews, W. J. (1984). Violence in college couples. College Student Journal, 18, 150-158. (A survey of 351 college students <123 men and 228 women> revealed that 79 <22.8 %> reported at least one incident of dating violence. Both men and women ascribed joint responsibility for violent behavior and both sexes, as either recipients or expressors of aggression, interpreted violence as a form of "love.")
Maxfield, M. G. (1989). Circumstances in supplementary homicide reports: Variety and validity. Criminology, 27, 671-695. (Examines FBI homicide data from 1976 through 1985. Reports that 9,822 wives & common law wives <57%> were killed compared to 7,433 husbands and common law husbands <43%>).
McCarthy, A. (2001.) Gender
differences in the incidences of, motives for, and consequences of, dating
violence among college students. Unpublished
McLeod, M. (1984). Women against men: An
examination of domestic violence based on an analysis of official data and
national victimization data. Justice Quarterly, 1, 171-193. (From a
data set of 6,200 cases of spousal abuse in the
McNeely, R. L., Cook, P. W. & Torres, J. B. (2001). Is domestic violence a gender issue or a human issue? Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 4 (4), 227-251. (Argues that domestic violence is a human issue and not a gender issue. Presents and discusses empirical findings and case studies to support this view. Expresses concerns about men's "legal and social defenselessness.")
McNeely, R. L., & Mann, C. R. (1990). Domestic violence is a human issue. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 129-132. (A review article which discusses the findings that women are more prone than men to engage in severely violent acts and that "classifying spousal violence as a women's issue rather than a human issue is erroneous.")
McNeely, R. L., & Robinson-Simpson, G. (1987). The truth about domestic violence: A falsely framed issue. Social Work, 32, 485-490. (A review article which concludes that women are as violent as men in domestic relationships.)
Mechem, C. C., Shofer, F. S., Reinhard, S. S., Hornig, S.,
& Datner, E. (1999). History
of domestic violence among male patients presenting to an urban emergency
department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 6, 786-791. (Data
was collected over a 13 week period at an emergency clinic in
Mercy, J. A., & Saltzman, L. E. (1989). Fatal violence among spouses in the United States, 1975-85. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 595-599. (Examined FBI figures regarding spousal homicides. During the 10 year period from 1975 to 1985 found higher murder rates of wives than husbands <43.4% vs 56.6%>. Black husbands were at the greatest risk of victimization. Spousal homicide among blacks was 8.4 times higher than that of whites. Spouse homicide rates were 7.7 times higher in interracial marriages and the risk of victimization for both whites and blacks increased as age differences between spouses increased. Wives and husbands were equally likely to be killed by firearms <approximately 72% of the time> while husbands were more likely to be stabbed and wives more likely to bludgeoned to death. Arguments apparently escalated to murder in 67% of spouse homicides.)
Meredith, W. H., Abbot, D. A., & Adams, S. L. (1986).
Family violence in relation to marital and parental
satisfaction and family strengths. Journal of Family Violence, 1,
299-305. (Authors report that 6% of men and 5% of women in
Merrill, L. L., King, L. K., Milner, J. S., Newell, C. E., & Koss, M. P. (1998). Premilitary intimate partner conflict resolution in a Navy basic trainee sample. Military Psychology, 10, 1-15. (A sample of 2, 987 ,1,560 women, 1,427 men> Navy basic trainees responded to the CTS. More men <43.3%> than women <40.3%> reported receiving physical violence from an intimate partner, and more women <46.9%> than men <31.9%> reported at least one instance of inflicting physical violence on an intimate partner.)
Migliaccio, T. A. (2002). Abused husbands: A Narrative analysis. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 26-52. (Narratives of 12 abused men are examined. Study finds that the accounts of battered men and women follow similar patterns, "including the structure of the relationships, acceptance of the abuse, and the social context of the situation.")
Mihalic, S. W., & Elliot, D. (1997). A social learning theory model of marital violence. Journal of Family Violence, 12, 21-46. (Based on data from the National Youth Survey <see Morse, 1995> a social learning model of marital violence for men and women was tested. For men ethnicity, prior victimization, stress and marital satisfaction predicted both perpetration and experience of minor violence. With regard to serious violence ethnicity, prior victimization, marital satisfaction predicted men's experience of marital violence, while ethnicity, class and sex role attitudes predicted the perpetration of male marital violence. For women the most important predictor of the experience of both minor and serious marital violence was marital satisfaction, class was also a predictor. With regard to female perpetrators of marital violence the witnessing of parental violence was an important predictor along with class and marital satisfaction. The social learning model worked better for women than men.)
Milardo, R. M. (1998). Gender asymmetry in common couple violence. Personal Relationships, 5, 423-438. (A sample of 180 college students <88 men, 72 women> were asked whether they would be likely to hit their partner in a number of situations common to a dating relationship. Results reveal that 83% of the women, compared to 53% of the men, indicated that they would be somewhat likely to hit their partner.)
Mirrlees-Black, C. (1999). Findings
from a new British Crime Survey self-completion questionnaire.
Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate report 191. Home Office.
Moffitt, T. E., Robins, R. W., & Caspi,
A. (2001). A couples analysis of partner
abuse with implications for abuse-prevention policy. Criminology &
Public Policy, 1 (1), 5-36. (A representative longitudinal sample of 360
young-adult couples in
Molidor, C., & Tolman, R. M. (1998). Gender and contextual factors in adolescent dating violence. Violence against Women, 4 (2), 180-194. (Subjects were 635 high school students <305 girls; 330 boys> who completed a modified version of the CTS. Results indicate that there was no significant difference between males and females in their experience of overall dating violence <37.1% of males vs. 36.4% of females. Males reported greater frequency of moderate violence and females reported greater frequency of severe violence.)
Monson, C. M., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2002). Sexual and nonsexual dating violence perpetration: testing an integrated perpetrator typology. Violence and Victims, 17, 403-428. (A sample of 228 men and 442 women were assessed with a modified version of the CTS2. Results reveal 27% of men and 37% of women reported perpetrating physical violence on their partners.)
J. (1995). Beyond the Conflict Tactics Scale: Assessing gender
differences in partner violence. Violence and Victims, 10 (4),
251-272. (Data was analyzed from the National Youth Survey, a
longitudinal study begun in 1976 with 1,725 subjects who were
drawn from a probability sample of households in the
Munoz-Rivas, M. J., Grana, J. L., O'Leary, K. D., & Gonzalez, M. P. (2007). Aggression in adolescent dating relationships: prevalence, justification, and health consequences. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40, 298-304. (A sample of 2416 high school students <1416 women, 1000 men> from 20 different schools in Madrid, Spain completed a modified CTS. Results reveal that significantly more women, 41.9% compared to 31.7% of men, admitted to perpetrating some form of physical aggression toward their dating partners. Women were significantly more likely to hit or kick <13.4% vs 5.3%>, slap <12.4% vs 3.1%> and shove or grab <22.5% vs 11.9%> than men.)
Murphy, J. E. (1988). Date abuse and forced intercourse among college
students. In G. P. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J. T. Kirkpatrick, & M. A. Straus (Eds.) Family Abuse and its Consequences: New Directions in
Research (pp. 285-296).
Mwamwenda, T. S. (1998). Reports of
husband battering from an undergraduate sample in
Niaz, U., Hassan, S., & Tariq, Q. (2002). Psychological consequences of intimate partner
violence: forms of domestic abuse in both genders.
Nicholls, T. L. & Dutton, D. G. (2001). Abuse committed by women against male intimates. Journal of Couples Therapy, 10 (1), 41-57. (A comprehensive review of the literature which concludes that "men are as likely as women to be victims of intimate assaults.")
O'Keefe, M. (1997). Predictors of dating violence among high school students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 546-568. (Surveyed 939 students <385 boys, 554 girls> ranging in age from 14-20. Sample was ethnically diverse: 53% Latino, 20% White, 13% African-American, 6.7% Asian American, and 7% "other." A modified version of the violence subscale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to assess dating violence. Results reveal that 43% of females and 39% of males reported that they perpetrated some form of physical aggression on their dating partners.)
O'Keeffe, N. K., Brockopp, K., &
Chew, E. (1986). Teen dating violence.
Social Work, 31, 465-468. (Surveyed 256 high school students from
O'Leary, K. D., Barling, J., Arias,
O'Leary, K. D., Slep, A. M. S.,
Avery-Leaf, S., & Cascardi, M. (2008).
Gender differences in dating aggression among multiethnic
high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42,
473-479. (A sample of 2363 students <1186 boys, 1177
girls> from 7 multiethnic high schools in
O'Leary, S. G., & Slep, A. M. S. (2006). Precipitants of Partner Aggression. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 344-347. (A random sample of 453 couples, who were cohabiting and raising a child between the ages of 3-7, was assessed with the CTS2 and a scale to evaluate precipitants for Partner Aggression <PCPT>. Results reveal that women were more likely than men to perpetrate both mild <23.8% vs 33.8%> and severe <8.4% vs 11.5%> aggression. With regards to precipitation, the authors state that, "Men were more likely than women to report partner physical aggression as a precipitant for their own mild physical aggression." While the physical aggression of women was more likely to be precipitated by their partner's verbal aggression, authors go on to conclude, "These findings suggest that women may often be the first to escalate a conflict and use physical aggression.")
Pedersen, P. & Thomas, C. D. (1992). Prevalence
and correlates of dating violence in a
Pekarek, C. (2008). Intimate partner violence and
interracial relationships: Prevalence, perceived social support and
gender. Unpublished master's thesis,
Plass, M. S., & Gessner, J. C. (1983). Violence in courtship relations: a southern sample. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 11, 198-202. (In an opportunity sample of 195 high school and college students from a large southern city, researchers used the Conflict Tactics scale to examine courtship violence. Overall, results reveal that women were significantly more likely than men to be aggressors. Specifically, in, committed relationships, women were three times as likely as men to slap their partners, and to kick, bit or hit with the fist seven times as often as men. In casual relationships, while the gender differences weren't as pronounced, women were more aggressive than men. Other findings reveal that high school students were more abusive than college students, and that a "higher proportion of black respondents were involved as aggressors.")
Prospero, M. (2007). Mental health symptoms among female and male victims of partner violence. American Journal of Men's Health, 1, 269-277. (An ethnically diverse sample <27% Hispanic, 18% African-American, 24% Asian, and 30% White> of 573 college students <241 male, 332 female> responded to the CTS2 and a mental healthy symptom questionnaire. Results reveal no differences between males and females on partner abuse. Author reports that "higher mental health problems were not related to whether the victim was female or male, but rather to the amount of partner violence that the victim experienced.")
Ridley, C. A., & Feldman, C. M. (2003). Female domestic violence toward male partners: Exploring conflict responses and outcomes. Journal of Family Violence, 18 (3), 157-170. (Participants were 153 female volunteers who completed the Abusive Behavior Inventory. Results reveal that 67.3% of participants reported at least one occurrence of perpetrating violent behavior in the past year. Most frequent behaviors included pushing, shoving, holding down <45.1%> and slapping, hitting, biting <41.2%>.)
Riggs, D. S., & O'Leary, K. D. (1996). Aggression between heterosexual dating partners. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 11, 519-540. (A sample of 345 college students <232 women, 113 men> were assessed with the CTS. Results reveal similar overall rates of physical violence toward dating partners: 30% for men and 33.6% for women. However, authors report that 18.2% of women compared to 9.0% of men slapped their partners and 13.2% of women compared to 2.5% of men reported "kicking, biting or hitting" their partners.)
Riggs, D. S., O'Leary, K. D., & Breslin, F. C. (1990). Multiple correlates of physical aggression in dating couples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 61-73. (Used CTS and studied 408 college students <125 men and 283 women>. Found that significantly more women <39%> than men <23%> reported engaging in physical aggression against their current partners.)
Rollins, B. C., & Oheneba-Sakyi, Y.
(1990). Physical violence in
Rouse, L. P. (1988). Abuse in dating relationships: A comparison of Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 312-319. (The use of physical force and its consequences were examined in a diverse sample of college students. Subjects consisted of 130 whites <58 men, 72 women>, 64 Blacks <32 men, 32 women>, and 34 Hispanics <24 men, 10 women>. Men were significantly more likely than women to report that their partners used moderate physical force and caused a greater number of injuries requiring medical attention. This gender difference was present for Whites and Blacks but not for Hispanics.)
Rosenfeld, R. (1997). Changing relationships between
men and women. A note on the decline in intimate
partner violence. Homicide Studies, 1, 72-83. (Author reports on homicide rates in
Rouse, L. P., Breen, R., & Howell, M. (1988). Abuse in intimate relationships. A Comparison of married and dating college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 414-429. (A sample of 130 married (48 men, 82 women) college students and 130 college students in dating relationships (58 men, 72 women) reported their experience of physical abuse in intimate relationships. Men were more likely to report being physically abused than women in both dating and marital relationships.)
Russell, R. J. H., & Hulson, B.
(1992). Physical and psychological abuse of
heterosexual partners. Personality and Individual Differences, 13,
457-473. (In a pilot study in
Ryan, K. A. (1998). The relationship between courtship violence and sexual aggression in college students. Journal of Family Violence, 13, 377-394. (A sample of 656 college students <245 men, 411 women> completed the CTS. Thirty four percent of the women and 40% of the men reported being victims of their partner's physical aggression.)
Sack, A. R., Keller, J. F., & Howard, R. D. (1982). Conflict tactics and violence in dating situations. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 12, 89-100. (Used the CTS with a sample of 211 college students, 92 men, 119 women. Results indicate that there were no differences between men and women with regard to the expression of physical violence.)
Saenger, G. (1963). Male and female
relations in the American comic strip. In D. M. White & R. H.
Abel (Eds.), The funnies, an American idiom (pp.
Sarantakos, S. (2004). Deconstructing
self-defense in wife-to-husband violence. Journal of Men's
Studies, 12 (3), 277-296. (Members of 68 families with violent wives in
Sarlar. S., Dsouza, R., Dasgupta,
A., & Fiebert, M.S. (2008, April). Men as victims of domestic violence in
Schafer, J., Caetano, R., & Clark, C. L. (1998). Rates of intimate
partner violence in the
Schumacher, J. A. & Leonard, K. E. (2005). Husbands' and wives' marital adjustment, verbal aggression, and physical aggression as longitudinal predictors of physical aggression in early marriage. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 28-37. (A sample of 634 newly married couples <approximately 60% Euro-American and 30% African-American> completed the revised CTS on 3 occasions over three years. The prevalence of wife to husband aggression was 48%, 45%, and 41%, while husband to wife aggression was 37%, 38%, and 37%.)
Schwartz, M., O'Leary, S. G., & Kendziora, K. T. (1997). Dating aggression among high school students. Violence and Victims, 12, 295-305. (A sample of 228 <122 male, 106 female> high school students were assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale as it related to the use of physical aggression during an argument with an opposite sex dating partner. Results indicate that 44% of females and only 16% of males reported engaging in at least one physically aggressive behavior during a disagreement. Authors speculate that culturally boys have inhibited their dating aggression, girls have become less intimidated by their dating partners than they once were. Authors cite research which shows that parents are more likely to punish boys than girls when they fight with their siblings.)
Sharpe, D., & Taylor, J. K. (1999). An examination of variables from a social-developmental model to explain physical and psychological dating violence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31:3, 165-175. (Canadian college students <110 men, 225 women> were surveyed with the Conflict Tactics Scale regarding dating violence. Results reveal that 38% of men and 27% of women report receiving physical violence from their partners. Twice as many women compared to men reported inflicting violence without receiving physical violence from dating partners.)
Shook, N. J., Gerrity, D. A., Jurich, J. & Segrist, A. E. (2000). Courtship violence among college students: A comparison of verbally and physically abusive couples. Journal of Family Violence, 15, 1-22. (A modified Conflict Tactics Scale was administered to 572 college students <395 women; 177 men>. Results reveal that significantly more women than men, 23.5% vs 13.0%, admitted using physical force against a dating partner.)
Sigelman, C. K.,
Simonelli, C. J. & Ingram, K. M. (1998). Psychological distress among men experiencing physical and emotional abuse in heterosexual dating relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, 667-681. (Responses from 70 male undergraduates to the CTS and a Psychological Maltreatment Inventory revealed that 40% reported being the target of some form of physical aggression from their female dating partners while only 23% reported expressing physical aggression to their partners. Men who were victims of emotional and physical abuse also reported greater levels of distress and depression.)
Simonelli, C. J., Mullis, T., Elliot, A. N., & Pierce, T. W. (2002). Abuse by siblings and subsequent experiences of violence within the dating relationship. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 103-121. (A sample of 120 undergraduates <61 men, 59 women> completed the CTS. Ten percent of men and 33% of women reported that they perpetrated at least one type of physical aggressive behavior against their dating partner and 18% of men and 15% of women reported receiving physical aggression from their dating partner.)
(1994). Male and female partner abuse: Testing a diathesis-stress
model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
Sommer, R., Barnes, G. E. & Murray, R. P. (1992). Alcohol consumption,
alcohol abuse, personality and female perpetrated spouse abuse. Journal of Personality and
Individual Differences, 13, 1315-1323. (The responses from a subsample of 452 women drawn from a sample of 1,257
Sorenson, S. B., & Telles, C. A. (1991). Self reports of spousal violence in a Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white population. Violence and Victims, 6, 3-15. (Surveyed 1,243 Mexican-Americans and 1,149 non-Hispanic whites and found that women compared to men reported higher rates of hitting, throwing objects, initiating violence, and striking first more than once. Gender difference was significant only for non-Hispanic whites.)
Sorenson, S. B., Upchurch, D. M., & Shen, H. (1996). Violence and injury in marital arguments: risk patterns and gender differences. American Journal of Public Health, 66 (1), 35-40. (Data analysis was based on findings from the National Survey of Families and Households conducted in 1987-88. Subjects included 6779 currently married White, Black and Hispanic individuals who completed a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Authors report that, "women <6.2% vs 4.9%> were slightly more likely than men to report that they had hit, shoved or thrown something at their spouse in the previous year." Women also reported higher rates of causing injury than did men. Other findings of note: 1) Blacks were 1.58 times more likely and Hispanics 0.53 times less likely than Whites to report that physical violence occurred in their relationship; 2) Subjects under 30 reported more violence and those above 50 reported less violence; 3) lower annual income was associated with higher rates of physical violence.)
Spencer, G. A., & Bryant, S. A. (2000). Dating violence: A comparison of rural, suburban and urban teens.
Journal of Adolescent Health, 25 (5), 302-305. (A sample of 2094 high
school students in upper
Stacy, C. L., Schandel, L. M., Flannery, W. S., Conlon, M., & Milardo, R. M. (1994). It's not all moonlight and roses: dating violence at the University of Maine, 1982-1992. College Student Journal, 28, 2-9. (Three separate samples of students were assessed in 1982, 1987 and 1992 with the CTS. Authors report that the rate of partner abuse has more than doubled over a 10 year period. In 1992 the data collected from 53 men and 106 women revealed the overall rate of violence perpetrated by men was 20.8% while the rate perpetrated by women was 41.5%.)
Steinmetz, S. K. (1977-78). The battered husband syndrome. Victimology: An International Journal, 2, 499-509. (A pioneering article suggesting that the incidence of husband beating was similar to the incidence of wife beating.)
Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Women and violence: victims and perpetrators. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 34, 334-350. (Examines the apparent contradiction in women's role as victim and perpetrator in domestic violence.)
Steinmetz, S. K. (1981). A cross cultural comparison of
marital abuse. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 8,
404-414. (Using a modified version of the CTS, examined marital violence
in small samples from six societies:
Stets, J. E. & Henderson, D. A. (1991). Contextual factors surrounding conflict resolution while dating: results from a national study. Family Relations, 40, 29-40. (Drawn from a random national telephone survey, daters <n=277; men=149, women=128> between the ages of 18 and 30, who were single, never married and in a relationship during the past year which lasted at least two months with at least six dates were examined with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Findings reveal that over 30% of subjects used physical aggression in their relationships, with 22% of the men and 40% of the women reported using some form of physical aggression. Women were "6 times more likely than men to use severe aggression <19.2% vs. 3.4%>...Men were twice as likely as women to report receiving severe aggression <15.7% vs. 8%>." Also found that younger subjects and those of lower socioeconomic status <SES> were more likely to use physical aggression.)
Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1987). Violence in dating relationships, Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 237-246. (Examined a college sample of 505 white students. Found that men and women were similar in both their use and reception of violence. Jealousy was a factor in explaining dating violence for women.)
Stets, J. E. & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1989). Patterns of physical and sexual abuse for men and women in dating relationships: A descriptive analysis, Journal of Family Violence, 4, 63-76. (Examined a sample of 287 college students <118 men and 169 women> and found similar rates for men and women of low level physical abuse in dating relationships. More women than men were pushed or shoved <24% vs 10%> while more men than women were slapped <12% vs 8%>. In term of unwanted sexual contact 22% of men and 36% of women reported such behavior. The most frequent category for both men <18%> and women <19%> was the item, "against my will my partner initiated necking".)
Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1990). Journal of Personal and Social Relations, 7, 371-394. (A random sample of white heterosexual college students <335 men, 448 women> were assessed with the CTS. Findings reveal that women compared to men perpetrated significantly more mild and severe aggression toward their dating partners and men compared to women sustained significantly more mild and severe aggression from their dating partners.)
Stets, J. E., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Gender
differences in reporting marital violence and
its medical and psychological consequences. In M. A. Straus & R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical
violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in
8,145 families (pp. 151-166).
Straus, M. (1980). Victims and aggressors in marital violence. American Behavioral Scientist, 23, 681-704. (Reviews data from the 1975 National Survey. Examined a subsample of 325 violent couples and found that in 49.5% of cases both husbands and wives committed at least one violent act, while husbands alone were violent in 27.7% of the cases and wives alone were violent in 22.7% of the cases. Found that 148 violent husbands had an average number of 7.1 aggressive acts per year while the 177 violent wives averaged 6.8 aggressive acts per year.)
Straus, M. A. (1995). Trends in cultural norms and rates of partner
violence: An update to 1992. In S. M. Stich
& M. A. Straus (Eds.) Understanding partner
violence: Prevalence, causes, consequences, and solutions (pp. 30-33).
Straus, M. A.
(1998). The controversy over domestic violence by women: A
methodological, theoretical, and sociology of science analysis. Paper
presented at Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology,
Straus, M. A. (2001). Prevalence of violence against dating partners by male and female university students worldwide. Violence Against Women, 10, 790-811. (Dating aggression was studied at 31 universities in 16 countries worldwide. Responding to the revised Conflict Tactics Scale were 8666 students <5919 women, 2747 men>. Results reveal that overall 25% of men and 28% of women assaulted their dating partner in the past year. At 21 of the 31 universities studied a larger percentage of women than men assaulted their dating partner. In terms of severe assaults a higher rate of perpetration by women occurred in a majority (18 of the 31) of the sites.)
Straus, M. A.
(2005). Women's violence toward men is a serious social problem. In
D. R. Loseke, R. J. Gelles,
& M. M. Cavanaugh (Eds.), Current Controversies on Family Violence, 2nd
Edition, (pp. 55-77).
Straus, M. A. (2006). Future research on gender symmetry in physical assaults on partners. Violence Against Women, 12, 1086-1097. (A review article and position statement in which author advocates a research focus on why gender symmetry in partner aggression is predominant and its implications for primary prevention and treatment. Suggests that such research is handicapped for a number of reasons including bias. Specifically cites concerns about some researchers who are blindly committed to a single causal theory-patriarchy & male dominance -- as well as "denial of research grants to projects that do not assume most partner violence is by male perpetrators." Authors also expresses concerns about "failure to investigate primary prevention & treatment for female offenders" and a suppression of evidence "of female perpetration by both researchers and agencies.")
Straus, M. A. (2007). Processes explaining the concealment and distortion of evidence on gender symmetry in partner violence. European Journal of Criminal Policy Research, 13, 227-232. (Focuses on methods used to conceal and distort evidence of gender symmetry in partner violence. These include the suppression of evidence, the avoidance of data inconsistent with "Patriarchal Dominance Theory," the obstruction of the publication of articles & the funding of research that might contradict the idea that male dominance in the cause of PV, and the harassment of researchers who produce evidence that contradicts feminist beliefs.)
Straus, M. A. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 252-275. (A convenience sample of 13,601 students <71.5% women, 28.5% men> at 68 universities in 32 countries completed the CTS2. Findings reveal that almost a third of students assaulted their dating partners in a 12 month period. In terms of initiation, mutual aggression accounted for 68.6% of physical violence, while women initiated violence 21.4% of the time and men initiated violence 9.9% of the time.)
Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (1986). Societal change and change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 465-479. (Reviewed data from two large sample national violence surveys of married couples and report that men and women assaulted each other at approximately equally rates, with women engaging in minor acts of violence at a higher rate than men. Sample size in 1975 survey=2,143; sample size in 1985 survey=6,002.)
Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1981). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family, Garden City, NJ: Anchor. (Reports findings from National Family Violence survey conducted in 1975. In terms of religion, found that Jewish men had the lowest rates of abusive spousal violence (1%), while Jewish women had a rate of abusive spousal violence which was more than double the rate for Protestant women <7%>, pp. 128-133. Abusive violence was defined as an "act which has a high potential for injuring the person being hit," pp.21-2.)
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283-316. (The revised CTS has clearer differentiation between minor and severe violence and new scales to measure sexual coercion and physical injury. Used the CTS2 with a sample of 317 college students <114 men, 203 women> and found that: 49% of men and 31% of women reported being a victim of physical assault by their partner; 38% of men and 30% of women reported being a victim of sexual coercion by their partner; and 16% of men and 14% of women reported being seriously injured by their partners.)
Straus, M. A., & Kaufman Kantor, G.
(1994, July). Change in spouse assault rates from 1975-1992: A
comparison of three national surveys in the
Straus, M. A., Kaufman Kantor, G., &
Moore, D. W. (1994, August). Change in cultural norms approving marital
violence from 1968 to 1994. Paper presented at the American Sociological
Straus, M. A., & Medeiros, R. A. (2002, November).
Gender differences in risk factors for physical violence
between dating partners by university students. Paper presented at
annual meeting of the American Society for Criminology,
Straus, M. A., & Mouradian, V. E.
(1999, November). Preliminary psychometric data for the Personal
Relationships Profile (PRP): A multi-scale tool for clinical screening and
research on partner violence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the American Society of Criminology,
Straus, M. A., & Ramirez,
Straus, M. A., & Scott, K. (in
press). Gender symmetry in partner violence: The evidence and
implications for primary prevention and treatment. in
J. R. Lutzker & D. J. Whitaker (eds.), Prevention
of partner violence.
Sugarman, D. B., & Hotaling,
G. T. (1989). Dating violence: Prevalence, context, and
risk markers. In M. A. Pirog-Good &
J. E. Stets (Eds.) Violence in dating
relationships: Emerging social issues (pp.3-32).
Sugihara, Y., & Warner, J. A. (2002). Dominance and domestic abuse among Mexican Americans: gender differences in the etiology of violence in intimate relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 17 (4), 315-340. (A sample of 316 Mexican Americans <161 men, 155 women> were evaluated with the CTS2. Subjects' average age was in the mid 30's, most were married, and all were English-speakers. Results reveal no differences in the victimization of physical assaults <35% vs 37%>. However, a greater percentage of men <14 vs 10> reported physical injuries.)
Swaroop, S., & Dsouza, R.
(September, 2007). Violence a home truth for
Swart, L. A., Stevens, M. S. G., & Ricardo,
Symons, P. Y., Groer, M. W., Kepler-Youngblood, P., & Slater, V. (1994).
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 7 (3) 14-23. (A
sample of 561 rural
Szinovacz, M. E. (1983). Using couple data as a methodological tool: The case of marital violence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 633-644. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with 103 couples and found that the wives' rates of physical aggression was somewhat higher than husbands'.)
S. (1994). Prevalence of spouse aggression in
Tang, C. S.
(1999). Marital power and aggression in a community sample of Hong Kong
Chinese families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14 (6),
Thompson Jr., E. H. (1990). Courtship violence and the male role. Men's Studies Review, 7 (3), 1, 4-13. (Subjects were 336 undergraduates <167 men, 169 women> who completed a modified version of the CTS. Found that 24.6% of men compared to 28.4% of women expressed physical violence toward their dating partners within the past two years. Found that women were twice as likely as men to slap their partners.)
Thompson Jr., E. H. (1991). The maleness of violence in dating relationships: an appraisal of stereotypes. Sex Roles, 24, 261-278. (In a more extensive presentation of his 1990 article, the author concludes that, "a more masculine and/or less feminine gender orientation and variations in relationship seriousness proved to be the two strongest predictors of both men's and women's involvement in courtship violence.")
B., & Harper, L. (2005). Women as the
aggressors in intimate partner homicide in
Tjaden, P. & Thoennes, N. (2000). Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence as measured by the National Violence Against Women Survey. Violence Against Women, 6, 142-161. (Telephone interviews using a modified version of the CTS was obtained from 6,934 men and 7,278 women regarding prevalence and consequences of partner violence. Authors report that women, over the course of their lives were 2.9 times more likely to report being physically assaulted than men. However, it should be noted that overall reported estimate of annual intimate partner violence for women of 1.4% is significantly lower than 11-12% estimates from earlier national surveys. Straus (1998) characterizes the data from this study as being flawed and inaccurate. He cites the wording of items as possibly creating "demand characteristics" that led subjects to view the survey as a study of crime and thus restrict their responses to exclude behavior considered harmless, especially minor assaults by women. Thus, he states this unintended demand characteristics probably account for the low prevalence rate and 3 to 1 ratio of male to female physical assaults.)
Tyree, A., & Malone, J. (1991). How can it be that wives hit husbands as much as husbands hit wives and none of us knew it? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. (Reviews the literature and discusses results from their study attempting to predict spousal violence. Found that women's violence is correlated with a history of hitting siblings and a desire to improve contact with partners.)
Vasquez, D., & Falcone, R. (1997).
Cross gender violence. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 29 (3),
427-429. (Reports equal cross gender violence treated at an
Vivian, D., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling,
J. (1996). Are bi-directionally violent couples mutually
victimized? In L. K. Hamberger & C. Renzetti (Eds.)
Domestic partner abuse (pp. 23-52).
Waiping, A. L., & Sporakowski, M. J. (1989). The continuation of violent dating relationships among college students. Journal of College Student Development, 30, 432-439. (Using a modified version of the CTS, authors examined courtship violence in a sample of 422 college students <227 women, 195 men>. Women more often than men <35.3% vs 20.3%> indicated that they physically abused their partners.)
Watson, J. M.,
Avery-Leaf, S., & O'Leary, K. D. (2001). High
school students' responses to dating aggression. Victims and
Violence, 16 (3), 339-348. (Using a modified version of the CTS, authors
examined dating violence in a multi-ethnic sample <43% Hispanic; 31.5%
Caucasian; 15.8% African-American> of
Whitaker, D. J., Haileyesus, T., Swahn, M., & Saltzman, L. S. (2007). Differences in frequency of violence and reported injury between relationships with reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 941-947. (A sample of 11,370 young adults <46% male, 54% female; 70% white, 15% Black, 10.7% Hispanic, 4.3 % other> aged 18-28, who were drawn from the 2001 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, responded to a modified version of the CTS. Results indicate that almost 24% of all relationships had some physical violence and that half the violence was reciprocal. In non-reciprocally violent relationships, women were the perpetrators 70% of the time. While overall, women were somewhat more likely to be injured than men, the authors report that, "in fact, men in relationships with reciprocal violence were reportedly injured more often <25.2%> than were women in relationships with nonreciprocal violence <20.0%>.)
White, J. W., & Humphrey, (1994). Women's aggression in heterosexual conflicts. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 195-202. (Eight hundred and twenty nine women <representing 84% of entering class of women> 17 and 18 years old, entering the university for the first time completed the CTS and other assessment instruments. Results reveal that 51.5% of subjects used physical aggression at least once in their prior dating relationships and, in the past year, 30.2% reported physically aggressing against their male partners. Past use of physical aggression was the best predictor of current aggression. The witnessing and experiencing of parental aggression also predicted present aggression.)
White, J. W., & Kowalski, R. M. (1994). Deconstructing the myth of the nonaggressive woman: A feminist analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 487-508. (A review and analysis which acknowledges that "women equal or exceed men in number of reported aggressive acts committed within the family." Examines a variety of explanations to account for such aggression.)
White, J. W., & Koss, M. P. (1991). Courtship violence: Incidence in a national sample of higher education students. Violence and Victims, 6, 247-256. (In a representative sample of 2,603 women and 2,105 men it was found that 37% of the men and 35% of women inflicted some form of physical aggression, while 39% of the men and 32% of the women received some form of physical aggression.)
Williams, S. L., & Frieze, I. (2005a). Courtship behaviors, relationship violence, and breakup persistence in college men and women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 248-257. (A sample of college students <215 women and 85 men; 77% Caucasian, 13% African-American, 5% Asian & the rest mixed or other> responded to the revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS2. Results revealed that women were significantly more likely than men to engage in mild (40% vs 23%) and severe (14% vs 4%) acts of violence with their partners.)
L., & Frieze,
Portions of this paper were
presented at the American Psychological Society Convention in
Earlier versions of this paper appeared in Sexuality and Culture, 1997, 1, 273-286, and Sexuality and Culture, 2004, 8, (No. 3-4), 140-177.
Special thanks to Diane Roe for her assistance in updating this bibliography.
Copyright, 2008. Martin S. Fiebert